Atomic Skull is the name of two supervillains, usually the antagonist of Superman. The first Atomic Skull was Dr. Albert Michaels and he first appeared in Superman #323 (May 1978). Dr. Michaels was a scientist for STAR Labs who suffered a brain disorder in his nervous system. To that end, a criminal organization helped him by utilizing a cybernetic device that turned the impulses in his brain into powerful energy, but it only made the disorder worse because it was difficult to control. He blamed the whole thing on Superman when the organization that helped Michaels were apprehended by Superman. He eventually became the leader of said organization and has clashed with Superman ever since. Michaels can deliver powerful bolts of energy through his eyes. This energy can vary from brainwaves, heat and atomic. The second Atomic Skull was named Joseph Martin and he first appeared in Action Comics #670 (October 1991). Martin was a student who was struck by a blast of energy that gave him superpowers. Driven insane, he began his criminal career under the moniker "The Atomic Skull" from a movie he liked. Martin has super strength, endurance and can create powerful atomic blasts from his hands and mouth.